Eleutherococcus senticosus (formerly Acanthopanax senticosus) is a species of small, woody shrub in the family Araliaceae native to Northeastern Asia.
It is often colloquially referred to as Siberian Ginseng or eleuthero and is sometimes shortened to E. senticosus in the medical literature. E. senticosus has been studied as an adaptogen and has a history of use in Chinese medicine, The herb grows in mixed and coniferous mountain forests, forming low undergrowth, or is found in groups in thickets and edges.
E. senticosus is sometimes found in oak groves at the foot of cliffs, very rarely in high forest riparian woodland. Its native habitat is East Asia, China, Japan, and Russia.
E. senticosus is broadly tolerant of soils, growing in sandy, loamy, and heavy clay soils with acid, neutral, or alkaline chemistry and including soils of low nutritional value. It can tolerate sun or dappled shade and some degree of pollution. E. senticosus is a deciduous shrub growing to 2m at a slow rate. It is hardy to zone 3. It flowers in July in most habitats. The flowers are hermaphroditic and are pollinated by insects.
 E. senticosus is a new addition to Western natural medicine but has quickly gained a reputation similar to that of the better known and more expensive Chinese Ginseng.
Though the chemical make-up of the two herbs differs, their effects seem to be similar. An extensive list of research on E. senticosus with links to PubMed is available.[
3] The herb is an adaptogen, is anticholesteremic, is mildly anti-inflammatory, is antioxidant, is nervine, and is an immune tonic. It is useful when the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) is depleted. Symptoms of this condition include fatigue, stress, neurasthenia, and sore muscles associated with the hypofunction of the endocrine system, and adrenal exhaustion indicated by a quivering tongue, dark circles under the eyes, and dilating/contracting pupils. Eleuthero may alleviate these symptoms.
 Contents [hide] * 1 Synonym * 2 Ethnomedical use * 3 Interactions and side effects * 4 References * 5 External links  Synonyms E. senticosus was previously marketed in the United States as Siberian Ginseng because it has similar herbal properties to those of Panax ginseng. However, it belongs to a different genus in the family Araliaceae, and it is currently illegal in the United States to market eleuthero as Siberian Ginseng since the term "ginseng" is reserved for the Panax species.  Ethnomedical use Eleutherococcus senticosus leaves E. senticosus is an adaptogen that has a wide range of health benefits attributed to its use. Currently, most of the research to support the medicinal use of E. senticosus is in Russian or Korean. E. senticosus contains eleutherosides, triterpenoid saponins that are lipophilic and that can fit into hormone receptors. Supporters[who?] of E. senticosus as medicine claim that it possesses a variety of medicinal properties, such as: * increased endurance * memory improvement * anti-inflammatory * immunogenic * chemoprotective * radiological protection Eleutherococcus senticosis is more tonifying than the true Ginsengs (Panax sp.). Taken regularly, it enhances immune function, decreases cortisol levels and inflammatory response[contradiction], and it promotes improved cognitive and physical performance. In human studies, Eleuthero has been successfully used to treat bone marrow suppression caused by chemotherapy or radiation, angina, hypercholesterolemia, and neurasthenia with headache, insomnia, and poor appetite. The major constituents of E. senticosus are Ciwujianoside A-E, Eleutheroside B (Syringin), Eleutherosides A-M, Friedelin, and Isofraxidin